PGD in Cyprus is one of our most popular and biggest treatments. Both in terms of what it offers as a concept and how wide ranging it is. We can accurately determine the sex of an embryo, plus detect over 400 genetic disorders and carry out screening for:
- Single gene disorder
- Chromosomal translocation
Team Miracle are among the industry leaders in Cyprus in the sphere of PGD, and though this can be a complex area, we have highlighted a few pertinent facts for you should you be considering our PGD in Cyprus treatment.
This is the term for the number of abnormal chromosome sets within the cell nucleus which are responsible for causing birth defects. PGD diagnostic treatment is carried out routinely on all embryos to be transferred.
Some of the more common abnormalities can result in the miscarriage of the pregnancy. The most common abnormalities are:
- Triploidy (three copies of all chromosomes)
- Trisomy (three copies of a set of chromosomes)
- Monosomy (only one set of chromosomes)
- Abnormal sex cells
Single gene disorder
More than 10, 000 human diseases are caused by faults in single genes. These disorders, which can also be known as monogenic or unifactorial diseases, are very rare individually, but out of the population as a whole, they affect around 1%.
Because only a single gene is involved in each case, these diseases normally have simple inheritance patterns in families. This means that they are inherited disorders and their presence in later generations can be predicted. The defective version of the gene responsible for the disease is known as a disease or mutant allele.
Many single gene disorders affect both sexes equally. However, where the relevant gene is present on the X-chromosome, the associated disease tends to be more common in males. Gender selection and single gene testing cannot be used on the same cell sample because the DNA extraction process destroys the cell membrane so no other procedures can be carried out on it.
This is where a fragmented part of the chromosome matches up in a pair with another chromosome. If there is no genetic material lost, then it is referred to as a ‘balanced translocation’. Because this is only a defect in the arrangement of chromosomes, it can still result in a genetically normal foetus.
The PGD in Cyprus process
Embryos are created through the traditional IVF process, after which they spend three days in an incubator. On the third day, one or two cells are removed so the PGD biopsy can take place. Only this tiny number of cells is required for accurate testing. The genetic material from the nucleus of the cell is then analysed for abnormalities. All tests and results are complete by the fifth day, when Dr Firdevs will then be able to discuss the results with you. Following this, you will receive guidance from Team Miracle about which embryos are the best to transfer.
When this process is carried out by one of our highly experienced embryologists at Cyprus IVF Clinic, each embryo will be at the eight cell stage of development. The embryo is placed under a very powerful microscope and a laser is used to create a tiny opening on the membrane (zona pellucida), 1-2 cells are removed and the membrane closes again automatically afterwards. At least one of these cells must contain a nucleus because this is where the genetic materials for testing are taken from.
If there is no nucleus, or it is damaged, then the cell is declared ‘anuclear’. This doesn’t necessarily mean that there are genetic problems, just that the cell analysis couldn’t take place as expected. Likewise, some cells may contain two nucleui, which could be normal, or indicative of problems. Either way, our embryology experts at Cyprus IVF Clinic have the skills and expertise to be able to assess these cell structures accurately.
How are the cells tested for PGD in Cyprus ?
We use something called ‘FISH’ testing, or ‘fluorescence in-situ hybridisation’ to screen for genetic abnormalities. This involves a small DNA probe which will recognise unique chromosomal patterns and literally light up upon contact. This method is often used to locate sub-microscopic abnormalities, such as 22q11 deletion. It also uses different colours which allows multiple testing of different chromosomes to be carried out simultaneously.
PGD at Cyprus IVF Clinic screens the five most important chromosomes:
Abnormalities in these cells can result in some of the most commonly recognised human genetic disorders. Normal cells will have two FISH signals, e.g. X and Y for a male and X and X for a female. The probe can then be washed and used for the next chromosome test. However repeated washing can affect the accuracy of the procedure so that’s why only the top five chromosomes are tested. Using this process we can detect a vast range of genetic abnormalities, including:
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Becker Muscular Dystrophy
Coffin Lowry syndrome
Complete and Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS and PAIS)
Congenital Cystic Fibrosis
Factor 9 Deficiency
Factor 8 Deficiency
Fragile X Syndrome
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD)
Glycogen Storage Disease
Haemophilia A and B
Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia
Diabetes Insipidus (DI)
XXY (Klinefelter’s Syndrome)
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS)
Nonsyndromic deafness and X-linked nonsyndromic deafness
Occipital horn syndrome
Sickle Cell Anaemia
Siderius X-linked mental retardation syndrome
von Willebrand Disease
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
In order for the embryo transfer to go ahead, the embryo must be normal physically and genetically so that we can eliminate the maximum number of genetic problems.
PGD in Cyprus is a complex process and Dr Firdevs will be able to explain the details to you and give you all the facts necessary for you to make an informed decision about which embryos you would like transferred.
Embryos that are not needed at this stage can go through our cryopreservation process and be stored for future IVF use.
Other uses of PGD include using its screening process to check for inherited disorders, such as haemophilia. This blood clotting abnormality (absence of F VIII) is carried down the female line and if she is a carrier, she has a 50/50 risk of passing the defective gene on to a male child. Using the PGD process in Cyprus would prevent this from happening. Before this sophisticated technique came into use, amniocentesis had to be used. This process involves taking amniotic fluid directly from around the foetus and testing it for abnormalities. It has a direct risk for the foetus and can result in some hard decisions because problems are only detected once the pregnancy is established.
To use the PGD in Cyprus process, you must have IVF – regardless of your fertility status. Hormone injections will be used to maximise the number of eggs produced by the female before the collection process. Once fertilised, the embryos will be placed in an incubator and after three days will reach the eight cell stage, at which point PGD becomes possible.
What happens before PGD in Cyprus ?
At Cyprus IVF Clinic we do not just meet your expectations, we aim to exceed them. Dr Firdevs uses a pioneering fertility treatment to identify even the very rarest genetic disorders known to man. She does this by using blood samples taken from both parents in order to carry out mutation verification testing. Then DNA probes are created and customised for each individual couple, allowing for the very best treatment.